Ref: Meena G.S. Annual Review Of Public Health, VOLUME 21, 2000 (Book Review). Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Book Reviews, 2004; Vol. 3, No. 2 (July - December 2004): ; Published August 29, 2004, (Accessed:
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LUCID, INFORMATIVE, INTERESTING, AND EASY TO COMPREHEND
Annual Review Of Public Health, VOLUME 21, 2000
by Jonathan E. Fielding, University of California at Los Angeles (Editor), Lester B. Lave, Carnegie Mellon University (Associate Editor), Barbara Starfield, Johns Hopkins University (Associate Editor), hard cover, 6"x9"
Annual Reviews, 4139 El Camino Way, P.O. BOX 10139, Palo Alto, California, USA : xi+707 Pages: Publication Date: 2000: ISSN 0163-7525: ISBN 0-8243-2721-7: Price $67.00 (individuals), $155.00 (Institutions)
One of the important discoveries in genetics is involvement of genes in diseases like cancer, heart disease, type II Diabetes etc. The interaction of genes and environmental factors for individual risk variation for cancer is being viewed as modifiable factors in prevention of cancer. Public health specialists are facing a challenge for interpreting the medical and public health significance of genetic variation within the populations; therefore there is a need for interdisciplinary co-operation. The role of genetics on microbial, chemical, and physical exposures and also on nutrition, metabolism, life style behavior, and medications is beautifully discussed in a mini symposium on Public Health Genetics edited by Gilbert S. Omenn Ex-Editor of ARPH.
The ARPH Vol. 21, 2000 has 27 topics contributed by 55 renowned authors covered under six major categories: (i) Symposium: Public Health Genetics (ii) Epidemiology and Biostatistics (iii) Environmental and Occupational Health (iv) Public Health Practice (v) Social Environment and Behavior and (vi) Health Services.
Public Health Genetics: An Emerging Interdisciplinary Field for the Post Genomic Era Provides an overview of impact and role of Public Health Genetics and its effects on interventions. As we know subsequent to an exposure to a pathogen the host may respond differently depending on host genes, co-infection immunity level, gene-gene interaction and may have several stages from mild or unapparent infection to severe diseases with or without chronic sequelae. The factors influencing the progression of the disease may be infecting dose, local protecting factors, antimicrobial drugs, and immunity conferred by previously infections or vaccines. Janet et al in their article Host Pathogen Interactions in Emerging and Re- Emerging Infectious Diseases have discussed genetic interactions and their effects in complex settings e.g. coexisting infection with several pathogens as well as priorities for prevention and control of these pathogens including vaccines and antimicrobial drugs. They have used a model of continuum of pathogenesis of infectious diseases to consider the effect of host gene on tuberculosis, malaria, HIV infection, hepatitis, and cholera, the diseases having public health burden. Nutrition, Genetics, and Risks of Cancer describes the relationship between nutritional and genetic factors.
The concept and principles underlying dietary patterns, nutrients, and other constituents of food on the risk to cancer are also discussed. Other topics discussed in mini symposium are Population screening in hereditary haemochromatosis and the interface of genetics and public health: research and educational challenges.
As multilevel analysis is frequently used in public health the article Multilevel Analysis In Public Health Research reviews the advantages and disadvantages as compared to standard methods. The rationale, statistical methodology, and limitations of the Multi Level Analysis are also discussed. Should We Use A Case-Crossover Design describes the genetic, clinical, laboratory aspects, population screening and testing considerations it also reviews published case cross over studies that helps in better understanding the case-crossover design. Causal Effects In Clinical And Epidemiological Studies Via Potential Outcomes: Concepts And Analytical Approaches reviews an approach for making inferences about the causal association via potential outcome. The basic elements of sampling and sampling design for epidemiological studies have been described in Building Bridges Between Populations And Samples In Epidemiological Studies. The Paper Looking Back On "Causal Thinking in The Health Sciences" by J.S. Kaufman on Mervyn Susser's book "causal thinking in the health Sciences" published in 1973 looks back on the impact and progress after the causal criteria in epidemiology has been discussed.
Epidemiology And Prevention Of Injuries Among Adolescent Workers In The United States deals with public health aspects of adolescent work, existing information about occupational injuries among adolescents in USA and identifies needs for research and policy attention. Toxicological Bases For The Setting Of Health Related Air Pollution Standards deals with air pollution standards particularly ozone and particulate matter. With the growing population especially in urban areas there is an increasing demand for water supply (water resources of many cities are already proving inadequate). The article Water Reclamation And Unrestricted Nonpotable Reuse: A New Tool In Urban Water Management deals with the reclamation of waste water produced by the communities themselves for non potable purposes like landscape, industry, cooling towers, air conditioning, toilet flushing, construction, vehicle washing and environmental enhancement through duel water supply.
Collaborative partnerships are for engaging people and organizations for addressing community determined issues of health and well being the article A Review Of Collaborative Partnerships As A Strategy For Improving Community Health reviews 34 unique studies describing the effects of 252 collaborative partnerships, it also touches upon the conditions and factors that may determine the effectiveness of collaborative partnerships. Oral Health In The United States: The Post- Fluoride Generation reviews the impact an dental caries and dental health status (DMFT) after more than four decades of water fluoridation in USA and suggest for dental public health measures. The New Public Health Litigation discusses the development and criticism that can be leveled at using litigation for developing public health policy to deter dangerous activities for public health.
The impact of Weather, Religion, and Income on health is adequately described in three respective topics. The climatic changes have an impact on health be it through food production, food borne diseases, or vector borne diseases. The earth temperature during the last century has risen to 0.5 degree centigrade. The Effects of Changing Weather on Public Health describes the health outcome of climate change in terms of Physical, chemical, biological, and combinations of three and also demographic impact on the population. There is disease prediction for certain religions. The article Religion and Health: Public Health Research and Practice reviews the role of religion on the health of individuals and population. It also presents religious coping, positive and negative aspects of religious involvement. Income Inequality And Health: What Does The Literature Tell Us reviews literature on income inequality on individual and population health.
Health Promotion In The City: A Review Of Current Practice And Future Prospects In The United States health promotion describes strategies for health promotion and assesses their relevance to the urban population. This will help in creating healthier cities and to achieve national health objectives. The reason for factors contributing to rise, peak and decline of homicides in US has been analyzed for age, sex, racial groups, weapon, illicit drug markets and lessons learned from public health point of view in The Rise and Decline of Homicide-and Why.
Evaluating The State Children's Health Insurance Program: Critical Considerations describes insurance status, access, and utilization for the strategy in evaluation of the state children's health insurance plan (S-CHIP). Preference-Based Measures in Economic Evaluation in Health Care considers issues and controversies involved in using preference based measures in economic evaluation in health care, with (a particular) emphasis on cost utility analysis and the estimation of quality adjusted life years. It briefly describes the key topics in preference estimation. Telemedicine: A New Health Care Delivery System provides genesis, definitions, and conceptual issues of telemedicine and assessment of telemedicine research. Other topics covered in this issue of ARPH include The Changing Nature Of Rural Health Care, Assessment in Long-Term Care, and Baby And The Brain: Advances in Child Development.
Cross references has been provided to past Annual Reviews from volume 12 to 21 is given in the form of two indexes at the end of the book cumulative index of contributing authors and cumulative index of chapter titles is a great help to the readers.
The book is lucid, very informative, interesting, and easy to understand as it is written in simple format. It has many tables and diagrams. ARPH is a very useful reference book for public health professionals, planners, policy/decision makers and for those pursuing higher studies in Community Medicine or Public Health.
Dr Gajendra Singh Meena was born on 25th December 1955 at pink city Jaipur in Rajasthan, India. He did his first twelve years of studies at Jaipur and medical graduation as well as post-graduation both from the prestigious All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (AIIMSONIAN, 1974 Batch).
He has worked at AIIMS in ICMR Project, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. He has more than seventeen years of UGs & PGs teaching experience as a faculty member in Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine).
Presently he is working as Professor in the Department of Community Medicine at Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. He has published ten papers, attended a dozen conferences, and presented papers there. His fields of research interests are prevention and control of communicable diseases and Epidemiology of non-communicable diseases.
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For the review of Volume 23, 2002, please click here.
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