...This book is a worthwhile addition to my library as a reference text for dealing with psychosexual disorders and gender disorders. I am sure, everybody else would find the book as useful as I did...
Sex Crimes and Paraphilia edited by Eric W. Hickey, Ph.D. softcover, 9.2" x 7" x 1".
Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Email: Communications@pearsoned.com. Tel. For All Calls Except Reporters: 1-201-236-7000. Reporters Only: 1-800-745-8489. Publication Date 2006. 560 pages, ISBN-10: 0131703501, ISBN-13: 9780131703506. Price $73.00
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Few topics in the realm of human behavior are more fascinating, exciting, or perhaps contentious and controversial than sex. It is interesting, intriguing and sometimes even disturbing. It has stimulated more attention than any other aspect of human behavior. Still more curiosity is aroused by sexual practices deemed unusual, deviant or deplorable. Known variously as sexual perversions, sexual deviations or more commonly paraphilias, these practices range from the commonly known sadism, masochism, fetishism and voyeurism to such uncommon and esoteric as homilophilia (sexual arousal from hearing or giving sermons), choreophilia (sexual arousal from dancing) and tripsolagnia (sexual arousal from having hair shampooed)!
According to the revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), all sexual disorders are divided into three groups (i) The Sexual Dysfunctions , characterized by inhibitions in sexual desire or dysfunction of the psychophysiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle. These are the most common of all sexual disorders (ii) The Paraphilias , (previously 'deviations') characterized by arousal in response to sexual objects or situations not part of normal arousal-activity patterns, and which may interfere with a capacity for reciprocal, affectionate sexual activity and (iii) The Gender Identity Disorders , characterized by distinct and continuous identification with the opposite sex and persistent discomfort with one's own.
While we get to read a number of books on sexual dysfunctions and even on the gender identity disorders, books on paraphilias are surprisingly rare. All of us, working in the field of abnormal sexual behavior were looking forward for a good book on paraphilia. At last Hickey comes out with a book, and what a marvelous book it is! Packed with authentic information on all kinds of paraphilia from cover to cover, the book is a cumulative effort of as many as 29 different authors drawn from a vast range of disciplines and geographical areas.
Hickey divides his book in nine quite logical parts. The book begins with the part devoted to explaining what sex crimes are (Part I - Understanding Sex Crimes). Further parts are on topics such as prostitution, pornography and obscenity (Part II), paraphilia (Part III), body fluids (Part IV), Fetishes (Part V), nonconsensual or dangerous paraphilic interests (Part VI), harming children (Part VII), stalking, rape and murder (Part VIII) and treatment of sex offenders and community attitudes (Part IX).
Each part has several chapters each written by an expert in that area. For instance, in the part on body fluids, we get to read chapters on vampirism and blood drinking behaviors, urophilia, coprophilia, klismatophilia (also known as klismaphilia) and partialism, each written by a specialist in that particular area.
The extent of information provided in each chapter can sometimes be mind-boggling. For instance, I was amazed to read chapter 8 (entitled "A Comprehensive paraphilia classification system" by Lisa Shaffer and Julie Penn). Among other things, the chapter lists more than 200 different kinds of paraphilias. In this chapter you get to know that there exist paraphilias, where a person gets arousal from insane people (maniaphilia), short people (nanophilia), threpterophilia (female nurses) and anililagnia (old women)!
The book deals with all paraphilias in a very comprehensive fashion, with chapters on fetishism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, incest, sadism and masochism. These chapters are full of information and are easy reading.
The editor and contributors have gone to a great deal of trouble to write this book in a style that is easy to read, clear and logical, and at the same time convey considerable amounts of information. This is a book that the general psychiatrist should read, particularly in this era when it is important to be aware of psychosexual disorders and their consequences. The book should also be very useful for forensic psychiatrists and forensic psychologists, forensic practitioners, and even mental health care professionals.
This book is a worthwhile addition to my library as a reference text for dealing with psychosexual disorders and gender disorders. I am sure, everybody else would find the book as useful as I did.
Excerpts from the book:
Paraphilas are understood only very sketchily, and the book under review does an extremely good job by giving a detailed and uptodate information on all paraphilias. So marvellous is this book, that the editors at the journal office thought, a mere review may not be able to convey to the reader how useful this book could be to them. So it was unanimously decided to run some select excerpts from this book.
We deliberately chose some lesser known topics from this book. We could have easily chosen excerpts from, say incest, rape, homosexuality, exhibitionism, voyeurism or a number of other commonly know paraphilias. But we thought to give some rare gems found only in this book and nowhere else. Let us begin with some excerpts from chapter 22 entitled "Hybristophilia", which as we all know is sexual arousal and attainment of orgasm, from a partner known to have committed a crime, such as rape, murder or armed robbery. Here is what the author Corey Vitello has to say on pages 197-9
Hybristophilia is a paraphilia of the predatory type in which sexual arousal, facilitation, and attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent upon being with a partner known to have committed an outrage, or crime, such as rape, murder, or armed robbery (Money, 1989). Although many times actual sexual contact between the hybristophile and his/her paraphilic object are frustrated by prison rules and iron bars, a segment of the population is turned on by inmates nonetheless. These individuals are known as prison groupies (Linedecker,1993). Most infamous prisoners have their paraphilic fan clubs; some eventually marry their admirers despite the implausibility that the partners will ever consummate the nuptials "and such normal pleasures of married life as sharing a home and parenthood will clearly be beyond reach" (Linedecker,1993, p.15).
According to Money (1989), hybristophilia comes from the Greek word hybridzein meaning "to commit an outrage against someone" and philo meaning "having a strong affinity or preference for." As a paraphilia recognized more often in women than in men, hybristophiles are attracted to those who commit outrages and criminal acts (Money, 1999). Erlbaum (1999) states
Hybristophiles may idolize whichever roughneck cretin is currently terrorizing the town on their favorite soap. Or they might write fan letters to convicts, professing their admiration and support. Maybe they found a passive guy to carry out their vicious self-hating desires by proxy.
Many female hybristophiles have mastermind criminal plans and coaxed their boyfriends into participating in order to achieve sexual arousal (Erlbaum,1999). Hybristophiles may even instigate a partner to commit a crime in order to be convicted and sent to prison (Money, 1989). This "Bonnie and Clyde Syndrome" ranges from mildly criminal to deadly: "It may manifest itself merely as an attraction to sneering pop stars. Or, for [many] women... it may result in an irresistible compulsion to seek out and partner with heinous sexual sadists in crimes against other women" (Erlbaum, 1999).
Hybristophiles are often the past and present victims of physical and sexual abuse resulting in low self-esteem and insecurity, making them particularly vulnerable to deviant sexual preferences and criminality. "Many come from abusive backgrounds, some continue to suffer at their partners' hands, and a few wind up dead when their partners run out of handy objects for their rage" (Erlbaum, 1999). On the other hand, many are not victims at all; they merely want to sublimate their violent tendencies by collaborating with a perpetrator of violence. Worse still, they may enjoy taking part in a brutal sex crime (Erlbaum, 1999). Whatever the case may be, the "compulsive attraction to criminals [for hybristophiles] varies in disposition and degree. The results of these attractions vary as well" (Erlbaum,1999).
Money (1999) theorizes that hybristophiles partake in the "opponent process learning" (p. 128). This process turns the accepted principles of operant conditioning upside down;
[The] opponent process converts negative into positive, tragedy into triumph, and aversion into addiction. Two recreational examples of opponent process reversals are bungee jumping and riding a gravity defying roller coaster. The novice whose apprehension amounts to sheer terror at first may, after very few trials, discover that terror transmogrifies into exhilaration and ecstasy as if the brain had released a flood of its own opiate-like endorphins. Thereafter, the thrill returns with each repeat, totally replacing terror (p. 128).
Money believes this process is evident in all paraphilic behaviors; "The ideation and imagery that other people disapprove of and punish if translated into action reasserts itself repetitiously and insistently demands a live performance, consequences notwithstanding" (p. 128). This process can be seen clearly in hybristophilia, manifested in the paraphilic fixation on partners known to have committed violent crimes or committed other socially unacceptable outrages. According to Money (1999), this process takes place even if one's own life is at stake. "In its most malignant form, the woman subtly precipitates a rage attack in her partner, and then she has him arrested and imprisoned for domestic violence. Subsequently, she visits him in prison and sexually frustrates him by her unavailability" (p. 128). For the hybristophile, this scenario would be exciting and sexually arousing.
Women, teens especially, have the unfortunate reputation for wanting to find a partner who fits the "bad boy image" (Erlbaum, 1999). "The sexy bad boy is a staple American icon. He embodies machismo, individualism and all that other ... potent ideals of the U.S" (Erlbaum, 1999). Bad boys come in differing degrees, and most women would confess to having a minor crush on at least one at the end of the spectrum (Bruce, 2002).
This hybristophilic phenomenon is proliferated and seemingly encouraged on television, in movies, and in magazines. According to Erlbaum (1999), the media sensationalizes criminals to the point that many women crave to be associated with them and their deviant lifestyles. From made-for-television movies to books to websites to music, crime is eroticized for the viewing and listening pleasure of youth across the United States.
Criminals are portrayed as sympathetic and the stars that play them on TV are almost always hunky, teen idol types. ". . . The media doesn't just reward celebrity impersonations of criminals. The media will be happy to reverse the formula and bring you the actual criminals, celebritized for your vicarious pleasure" (Erlbaum, 1999). The network that gets the big exclusive with the latest serial killer is certain to score large with the ratings-especially if that serial killer is good-looking and charismatic.
Cara Bruce (2002), author of The Thrill of the Killer, recounts her fascination with the bad-boy icon:
... when I was 18, I liked the excitement. I had a fetish for bad boys - crazy, violent, dan¬gerous - the more insane, the better. Reality wasn't cutting it for me and drugs weren't always available. And besides, there was something sexy about a total f**king nutcase, about the uncertainty of what he might do next."
Perhaps the James Dean rebel character represented an alternative to growing old and responsible. Maybe, women fall for the bad boys because they are forbidden - "[P]erhaps it's the ultimate taboo, thus, the ultimate aphrodisiac" (Bruce, 2002). Consequently, those women who do not grow out of the bad-boy fixation become a hybristophile because the image is so strongly paired with sexual arousal; they need to be with a notorious partner to achieve sexual pleasure.
The author then goes on to reveal some further interesting aspects about hybristophilia.
And here are some excerpts from pages 357-8, which describe another rare paraphilia infantilism. Infantilism, also known as autonepiophilia, is a paraphilia characteristic of a masquerade in which an individual is symbolically transformed back to infancy. In chapter 40 entitled "Infantilism - An Exploration and Discovery" the author Dawn Alley discusses the etiology and characteristics of this paraphilia. Here is what the author has to say on pages 357-8
Numerous theories have attempted to explain psychosexual infantilism. Three will be considered here: one emphasizing mental templates of normal sexual development (Money, 1996), the second emphasizing learning theory (Cooper, 1993), and the third emphasizing a conscious escape from reality (Baumeister,1991).
Money (1986) introduced the concept of lovemaps describing them as schematic templates of nurture and imprinted by social influences. Ideally, the lovemaps help encode normal imagery and ideation of sexuality. With continued unresponsive care or trauma (e.g., sexual abuse) the development of the mental templates are interrupted and distortions may occur. For instance, if the template for sexual development is thwarted during infancy an individual's sexual fruition is likely to remain In an infantile state (Money, 1986). The individual is left alone to make sense of sexuality. Attempts to recapitulate past experiences are often made from broken bits of misguided, neglectful, or abusive information that is often distorted because of the negative impact of the adverse experience (Alley, 2000). Deriving sexual enjoyment is likely to occur from an immature regression back to infancy.
Learning theory as it relates to behavior has been defined as the capacity for behavioral change due to experiences (Lieberman,1993). The notion here is that a fixation occurred in development and is later recalled and acted upon in adulthood. In support for this McGuire, Carlie, and Young (1965) reported a case in which a young boy witnessed a girl through a window in only her underwear. Thereafter, the image of the girl was thought of when the boy masturbated. This mental image was recalled frequently with sexual gratification as the rewarding outcome. As an adult then, sexual gratification came from the association of woman's undergarments both on a visual and tactile level. Similarly individuals with infantilism have equivalent conditioned responses. One infantilist named "Baby Jamie" described his own story of association as developing around eight as a result of viewing an advertisement for diapers. The affection that was depicted in this advert sparked an inquiry and eventually a deep desire for the perceived love and affection gained when a mother cared for an infant by changing his diaper (Baby Jamie, 2002). Jamie recalled the feeling of being loved and cared for when being diapered coupled with the soft warm feeling that he gleamed from wearing the diaper, he then associated that sensational feeling with being loved. Drawing on this association he disclosed that around the age of twelve he achieved his first orgasm as a result of wearing diapers. Since then he states that he engages in infantilistic acts for comfort and sexual gratification although his sexuality is not solely driven by the adult-baby role he assumes (Baby Jamie, 2002).
The fact that life can be overwhelming, ensued with self-awareness, stressful situations and riddled with responsibility provides the third explanation for infantilism. Baumeister (1991) purposed his theory of self-escape as the process of cognitive deconstruction. In this view there are two levels of thinking, which are connected to an individual's awareness of identity. At the highest level of awareness lies meaningful thoughts, mental constructs, inhibitions, standards, and expectations. At the lowest level of awareness lies concrete thinking, impulsivity, sensation, and immediacy. According to this theory the infantilist returns to a more concrete level of thinking and reasoning whereby the individual avoids sometimes painful self-evaluations and potentially stressful life situations and responsibilities (Baumeister, 1991). If one retreats, or deconstructs as it were, to the lower level of awareness, the individual is able to engage in their practice with a trusted partner without fear or judgment. Indeed, one infantilist described his practice as a place for coping where he could relax and escape from his daily routine (Baby Jamie, 2002).
lnfantilists distinguish within themselves at least two groups: adult babies and diaper lovers (Baby Jamie, 2002). Diaper lovers wear diapers for the sole pleasure and sexual gratification of how the diaper feels, smells, and sounds. Adult babies also gleam pleasure and sexual gratification from the diaper, but they gain fulfillment when engaged in playing the role of the infant. Roles within psychosexual infantilism consist of dominant and submissive characters. Because the male is often identified as the adult baby (Money, 1986), their role is often submissive. The adult baby surrenders control to a dominant role (i.e., the Mommy) whereby this individual provides comfort and nurturance as she plays out the part of mum. Those without a regular partner seek out professionals to fulfill this role (i.e., prostitute or dominatrix) Although some disciplinary fantasies are played out, they are usually playful and nonviolent (Baby Jamie, 2002).
Adult sexual practices are usually separate from the adult-baby play and frequently take place after the role-play has concluded (Baby Jamie, 2002). Contrary to the notion that sexual gratification is only gained by wearing the diapers, those whom are self-proclaimed infantilists clarify that they also gain sexual pleasure outside the adult-baby play (Baby Jamie, 2002). Thus, separating and distinguishing infantilism from fetishism wherein the infantilist receives pleasure apart from the diaper and the role of an infant.
There are a toal of 52 information packed chapters in the book like this. The book is full of practical information related to the paraphilias and sexual crimes. We are sure our readers would enjoy the book as much as we at the journal office did.
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